If the key to the health and wealth of all living systems, including economies, is based on resources being exchanged and recycled often and locally, how can a national economic stimulus package best help to build local and national economies? The various programs of the 1930’s often employed numerous people through large-scale projects accomplished with hand labor and small-scale, locally owned equipment. Most modern projects of all kinds concentrate on the use of large, expensive, laborsaving equipment–at the expense of jobs.
In natural systems, any one essential function is provided in multiple ways. Few animals feed on only one species. The most successful ones, like coyotes, feed not only on many animals, but on plants and even insects as well. The really resilient plants are the ones that have many different ways to get and store food and water, and to be pollinated and reproduce. And just as it is essential for all beings to have multiple sources for obtaining what they need to survive, it is also essential that all beings provide multiple services to the communities of which they are a part.